Purpose: To determine the positive predictive value (PPV) for polyps detected at CT colonography (CTC).
Methods: Assessment of 739 colorectal lesions >or=6 mm detected prospectively at CTC screening in 479 patients was performed. By-polyp PPV was analyzed according to small (6-9 mm) versus large (>or=10 mm) size; morphology (sessile/pedunculated/flat); diagnostic confidence level (3 = most confident, 1 = least confident); and histology. By-patient PPV was analyzed at various polyp size thresholds.
Results: By-polyp PPV for CTC-detected lesions >or=6 mm, 6-9 mm, and >or=10 mm was 91.6% (677/739), 90.1% (410/451), and 92.7% (267/288), respectively (p = 0.4). By-polyp PPV according to sessile, pedunculated, flat, and mass-like morphology was 92.5% (441/477), 96.5% (139/144), 77.7% (73/94), and 97.6% (40/41), respectively (p < 0.0001 for flat versus polypoid morphology). By-polyp PPV according to diagnostic confidence level was 94.7% (554/585) for highest (= level 3), 83.5% (106/127) for intermediate (= level 2), and 63.0% (17/27) for lowest (= level 1) confidence (p < 0.0001 for levels-2/3 versus level-1). By-patient PPV at 6-mm, 8-mm, 10-mm, and 30-mm polyp size thresholds was 92.3% (442/479), 93.0% (306/329), 93.1% (228/245), and 97.4% (38/39), respectively.
Conclusion: The overall per-polyp and per-patient PPV for lesions >or=6 mm was 92% for CTC screening. Increased diagnostic confidence and polypoid (non-flat) morphology correlated with a higher PPV, whereas small versus large polyp size had very little effect.