Open blunt crush injury of different severity determines nature and extent of local tissue regeneration and repair

J Orthop Res. 2010 Jul;28(7):950-7. doi: 10.1002/jor.21063.


Insufficiency of skeletal muscle regeneration is often accompanied with functional deficiencies. The goal of our study was to assess the restoration of peripheral muscle upon injury of different severity. Blunt crush injury of the soleus muscle in rats was induced by a clamp and stepwise amplified in severity by rising the locking level of the clamp, resulting in three different groups (1x lock; 2x lock; 3x lock; n = 30 animals per group). After assessment of the fast twitch and tetanic contraction capacity at days 1, 4, 7, 14, and 42 postinjury sampling of muscle tissue served for analysis of cell proliferation, including satellite cells, apoptosis, and leukocyte infiltration. Contraction force analysis demonstrated significantly higher values of relative muscle strength in the 1x lock group compared to the two other groups over 42 days. Calculation of the twitch-to-tetanic force ratio revealed significantly higher mean values at days 1, 7, and 14 in the animals of group 2x lock and 3x lock, indicating a transformation toward a fast-twitching muscular phenotype. Moreover, cell proliferation during the first 4 days was found dependent on the severity of muscle injury in that the higher the severity the higher the proliferation. At the same time, cell apoptosis was found increased, and at day 1 the local leukocyte infiltration was significantly higher in the 3x lock compared to the 1x lock group. These data indicate that severity of injury correlates with local repair responses, which, however, are not necessarily sufficient to fully restore muscle function.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / physiology
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Bromodeoxyuridine / metabolism
  • Cell Division / physiology
  • Crush Syndrome / pathology*
  • Crush Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Laminin / metabolism
  • Male
  • Muscle Fibers, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Muscle Fibers, Skeletal / pathology
  • Muscle Strength / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / injuries*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / pathology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Regeneration / physiology*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Wound Healing / physiology*
  • Wounds, Nonpenetrating / pathology*
  • Wounds, Nonpenetrating / physiopathology


  • Laminin
  • Bromodeoxyuridine