Cultural adaptation and translation of measures: an integrated method

Res Nurs Health. 2010 Apr;33(2):133-43. doi: 10.1002/nur.20364.


Differences in the conceptualization and operationalization of health-related concepts may exist across cultures. Such differences underscore the importance of examining conceptual equivalence when adapting and translating instruments. In this article, we describe an integrated method for exploring conceptual equivalence within the process of adapting and translating measures. The integrated method involves five phases including selection of instruments for cultural adaptation and translation; assessment of conceptual equivalence, leading to the generation of a set of items deemed to be culturally and linguistically appropriate to assess the concept of interest in the target community; forward translation; back translation (optional); and pre-testing of the set of items. Strengths and limitations of the proposed integrated method are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Attitude to Health / ethnology*
  • Communication Barriers
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Cultural Diversity*
  • Data Collection / methods
  • Emigrants and Immigrants / psychology
  • Focus Groups
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Multilingualism*
  • Nursing Assessment / methods*
  • Nursing Evaluation Research
  • Psychometrics
  • Research Design
  • Semantics
  • Social Values
  • Spouse Abuse / ethnology
  • Sri Lanka / ethnology
  • Translating*
  • Validation Studies as Topic