Omeprazole, a substituted benzimidazole, has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). We review our experience, as well as the published data on 210 patients with ZES who have required omeprazole for control of gastric acid hypersecretion over the past seven years. The dose of omeprazole required in individual patients ranged from 10 to 180 mg/24 hr with 20-60% requiring a split dosage regimen. Omeprazole was effective in approximately 99% of the patients over a period ranging from 0.5 to 54 months. Twenty-four percent of patients required an increase in omeprazole dose, while 26% required a decrease in dose. Adverse effects attributable to omeprazole were reported in 2% of patients, and in all cases, they were mild (ie, rash, constipation, headache). There was no effect of omeprazole on serum gastrin concentration or on gastric endocrine cells in three studies. Although one patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia, type-I syndrome (MEN-I) in this series developed a gastric carcinoid while taking omeprazole, evidence is presented that suggests the presence of MEN-I per se may be important in determining the development of gastric carcinoid in patients with ZES. It is concluded that omeprazole is safe and effective in patients with ZES, and in these patients, it is the drug of choice for the management of gastric acid hypersecretion. However, yearly assessment is indicated to clearly evaluate the long-term risk of gastric carcinoid as well as therapy directed at the gastrinoma itself.