Regulation of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system

Science. 2010 Jan 15;327(5963):291-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1183021.


Twenty years after the proposal that pattern recognition receptors detect invasion by microbial pathogens, the field of immunology has witnessed several discoveries that have elucidated receptors and signaling pathways of microbial recognition systems and how they control the generation of T and B lymphocyte-mediated immune responses. However, there are still many fundamental questions that remain poorly understood, even though sometimes the answers are assumed to be known. Here, we discuss some of these questions, including the mechanisms by which pathogen-specific innate immune recognition activates antigen-specific adaptive immune responses and the roles of different types of innate immune recognition in host defense from infection and injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity*
  • Animals
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology
  • Bacterial Infections / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Ligands
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / immunology
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism
  • Virus Diseases / immunology*


  • Ligands
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition
  • Toll-Like Receptors