Immunotherapy has become an important part of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation and cancer therapy. Regenerative and reparative properties of somatic cell-based therapies hold tremendous promise for repairing injured tissue, preventing and reversing damage to organs, and restoring balance to compromised immune systems. The principles and practices of the diverse aspects of immune therapy for cancer, HSC transplantation and regenerative medicine have many commonalities. This meeting report summarizes a workshop sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and Production Assistance for Cellular Therapies (PACT), held on 23-24 April 2009 at the National Institutes of Health (NIH, USA). A series of scientific sessions and speakers highlighted key aspects of the latest scientific, clinical and technologic developments in cell therapy, involving a unique set of cell products with a special emphasis on converging concepts in these fields.