What is already known about this subject: * The interindividual variability of the pharmacokinetic parameters of cilostazol is relatively large. * Cilostazol undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism via the P450 enzymes, primarily CYP3A and, to a lesser extent, CYP2C19. * Indeed, <1% of the administered dose of cilostazol is excreted unchanged in the urine.
What this study adds: * A population pharmacokinetic analysis of cilostazol was conducted to evaluate the impact of CYP3A, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 polymorphisms on cilostazol disposition in vivo. * Genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and CYP2C19 explain the substantial interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol. * ABCB1 genotypes do not to appear to be associated with the disposition of cilostazol.
Aims: To investigate the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the CYP3A5, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genes on the population pharmacokinetics of cilostazol in healthy subjects.
Methods: Subjects who participated in four separate cilostazol bioequivalence studies with the same protocols were included in this retrospective analysis. One hundred and four healthy Korean volunteers were orally administered a single 50- or 100-mg dose of cilostazol. We estimated the population pharmacokinetics of cilostazol using a nonlinear mixed effects modelling (nonmem) method and explored the possible influence of genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A (CYP3A5*3), CYP2C19 (CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3) and ABCB1 (C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T) on the population pharmacokinetics of cilostazol.
Results: A two-compartment model with a first-order absorption and lag time described the cilostazol serum concentrations well. The apparent oral clearance (CL/F) was estimated to be 12.8 l h(-1). The volumes of the central and the peripheral compartment were characterized as 20.5 l and 73.1 l, respectively. Intercompartmental clearance was estimated at 5.6 l h(-1). Absorption rate constant was estimated at 0.24 h(-1) and lag time was predicted at 0.57 h. The genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 had a significant (P < 0.001) influence on the CL/F of cilostazol. When CYP2C19 was evaluated, a significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed among the three genotypes (extensive metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers and poor metabolizers) for the CL/F. In addition, a combination of CYP3A5 and CYP2C19 genotypes was found to be associated with a significant difference (P < 0.005) in the CL/F. When including these genotypes, the interindividual variability of the CL/F was reduced from 34.1% in the base model to 27.3% in the final model. However, no significant differences between the ABCB1 genotypes and cilostazol pharmacokinetic parameters were observed.
Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that CYP3A5 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms explain the substantial interindividual variability that occurs in the metabolism of cilostazol.