Infections associated with implants are increasingly important in modem medicine. Biofilms are the cause that these infections are more difficult to diagnose and to cure. Particularly low-grade infections are difficult to distinguish from aseptic failure, because they often present with early loosening and persisting pain. For an accurate diagnosis, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory markers of infection, microbiology, histology and imaging examinations are needed. The treatment goal is eradication of infection and an optimal functional result. Successful treatment requires adequate surgical procedure combined with long-term antimicrobial therapy, ideally with an agent acting on biofilms.