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Review
, 11 (3), 361-74

Community Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

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Review

Community Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

Stavros Anevlavis et al. Expert Opin Pharmacother.

Abstract

Importance of the field: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially life-threatening illness that continues to be a major medical problem. Among infectious diseases, CAP is the leading cause of death in the world and is associated with a substantial economic burden to health are systems around the globe.

Areas covered in this review: Recently identified clinical and biochemical tools promise to improve the assessment of CAP severity. Various prognostic scoring systems and predictive biomarkers have been proposed as tools to aid clinicians in key management decisions. This review provides a summary of current evidence about the use of prognostic scoring systems and biomarkers in the management of patients presenting with CAP. According to the existing guidelines, until more accurate and rapid diagnostic methods are available, the initial treatment for most patients with CAP will remain empirical. Some novel antibiotic and nonantibiotic therapies have recently been tested; some empirical antimicrobial regimens are still being debated. This review summarizes the recent advances in the field of therapy and novel approaches. We searched PubMed for English-language references published from 1997 to 2009 using combinations of the following terms: 'community acquired pneumonia', 'community acquired bacterial pneumonia', 'therapy', 'antibiotics', 'antimicrobials', 'prognostic scoring systems', 'biomarkers', 'diagnostic testing', 'guidelines' 'etiological diagnosis'.

What the reader will gain: A thorough description about recent advances in the field of therapy and novel approaches of CAP, as well as a summary of current evidence about the use of prognostic scoring systems and biomarkers in the management of patients presenting with CAP, is presented.

Take home message: Recent developments have made significant contributions to the management of CAP patients. However, various hot topics remain open and urgently require prospective studies in order to optimize the outcomes of CAP.

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