A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

Mol Syst Biol. 2010:6:343. doi: 10.1038/msb.2009.98. Epub 2010 Jan 19.


The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug-side effect pairs. For 199 drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems*
  • Data Mining
  • Databases as Topic
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions*
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / chemistry
  • Phenotype
  • Risk Assessment
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Pharmaceutical Preparations