In vivo gene delivery using human adenovirus serotype 5 (AdV5) vectors is being explored for vaccination purposes. The presence of anti-AdV5 antibodies in human serum arising from natural exposure to AdV5 can interfere potentially with and compromise the efficacy of rAdV5-based vaccine vectors. In this report, a collection of 114 sera from healthy adult Indian blood donors was analyzed for the presence of anti-AdV5 antibodies, using an AdV5 vector encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to monitor the presence of anti-AdV5 neutralizing antibodies in human sera based on their ability to block virus entry into HeLa cells which express the Coxsackievirus-and-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR). In this assay all samples tested were positive for anti-AdV5 antibodies, with titers varying over a very wide range. It was also observed that these antibodies facilitated the uptake of the reporter AdV5 vector into the monocytic cell line U937 which does not express CAR, but expresses Fc receptors (FcRs) instead. These observations have implications for rAdV5-based vaccine development. J. Med. Virol. 82:407-414, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.