Epidemiology of invasive mycoses in North America

Crit Rev Microbiol. 2010;36(1):1-53. doi: 10.3109/10408410903241444.


The incidence of invasive mycoses is increasing, especially among patients who are immunocompromised or hospitalized with serious underlying diseases. Such infections may be broken into two broad categories: opportunistic and endemic. The most important agents of the opportunistic mycoses are Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jirovecii, and Aspergillus spp. (although the list of potential pathogens is ever expanding); while the most commonly encountered endemic mycoses are due to Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis/posadasii, and Blastomyces dermatitidis. This review discusses the epidemiologic profiles of these invasive mycoses in North America, as well as risk factors for infection, and the pathogens' antifungal susceptibility.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Endemic Diseases
  • Fungi / classification
  • Fungi / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Incidence
  • Mycoses / epidemiology*
  • Mycoses / microbiology
  • North America / epidemiology
  • Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology*
  • Opportunistic Infections / microbiology