Soccer injuries to the brain. A neuropsychologic study of former soccer players

Am J Sports Med. Jan-Feb 1991;19(1):56-60. doi: 10.1177/036354659101900109.


Thirty-seven former soccer players of the National Football Team of Norway were individually examined with an extensive battery of psychologic tests. The neuropsychologic examination demonstrated mild to severe deficits regarding attention, concentration, memory, and judgment in 81% of the players. This may indicate some degree of permanent organic brain damage, probably the cumulative result of repeated traumas from heading the ball.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brain Damage, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Brain Damage, Chronic / etiology
  • Brain Injuries / diagnosis
  • Brain Injuries / etiology*
  • Brain Injuries / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Intelligence Tests
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests*
  • Norway
  • Psychomotor Performance
  • Soccer / injuries*