Prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) suppresses adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting the function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. However, PGF(2alpha) synthase (PGFS) in adipocytes remains to be identified. Here, we studied the expression of members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B family acting as PGFS during adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 cells. AKR1B3 mRNA was expressed in preadipocytes, and its level increased about 4-fold at day 1 after initiation of adipocyte differentiation, and then quickly decreased the following day to a level lower than that in the preadipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA levels of Akr1b8 and 1b10 were clearly lower than that level of Akr1b3 in preadipocytes and remained unchanged during adipogenesis. The transient increase in Akr1b3 during adipogenesis was also observed by Western blot analysis. The mRNA for the FP receptor, which is selective for PGF(2alpha), was also expressed in preadipocytes. Its level increased about 2-fold within 1 h after the initiation of adipocyte differentiation and was maintained at almost the same level throughout adipocyte differentiation. The small interfering RNA for Akr1b3, but not for Akr1b8 or 1b10, suppressed PGF(2alpha) production and enhanced the expression of adipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (aP2), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Moreover, an FP receptor agonist, Fluprostenol, suppressed the expression of those adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 cells; whereas an FP receptor antagonist, AL-8810, efficiently inhibited the suppression of adipogenesis caused by the endogenous PGF(2alpha). These results indicate that AKR1B3 acts as the PGFS in adipocytes and that AKR1B3-produced PGF(2alpha) suppressed adipocyte differentiation by acting through FP receptors.