Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. The novel MSH2 c.[2635-3T>C; 2635-5C>T] mutation was identified in 4 Lynch families, cosegregating with the disease. This mutation, located in intron 15, was predicted to alter the correct mRNA processing by in silico analysis. Our aim was to perform the c.[2635-3T>C; 2635-5C>T] mutation screening in high risk CRC cases and control populations, to evaluate the founder effect in our population by haplotype analysis and to confirm the pathogenic effect of the mutation by MSH2 expression studies. Mutation screening was performed by SSCP and CSCE in genomic DNA from 323 high risk CRC cases and 289 controls. Haplotyping was performed analysing 4 MSH2 extragenic microsatellite markers (D2S288, D2S2227, D2S1247 and D2S1248) in 50 controls and mutation carriers by using the PHASE program. We analysed the effect of the mutation in mRNA processing by RT-PCR and in MSH2 expression by qRT-PCR using RNA from 5 mutation carriers and 18 controls. None of the remaining high risk CRC cases or controls analysed harboured the mutation. We identified a common telomeric haplotype and two centromeric haplotypes, both rare in our population. Although we were not able to identify any abnormal transcript by RT-PCR with the design used, we observed a significant reduction of mRNA MSH2 expression in carriers when compared with controls. Haplotype analyses suggest a founder effect of the c.[2635-3T>C; 2635-5C>T] MSH2 mutation and expression studies support a pathogenic role of this mutation.