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. 2010 Apr;149(1):86-94.
doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2010.01.006. Epub 2010 Jan 21.

Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Susceptibility to Botanical Oleoresins and Essential Oils in Vitro and in Vivo

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Free PMC article

Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Susceptibility to Botanical Oleoresins and Essential Oils in Vitro and in Vivo

M W Jackwood et al. Virus Res. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Anti-coronaviral activity of a mixture of oleoresins and essential oils from botanicals, designated QR448(a), was examined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with QR448(a) reduced the virus titer as measured in two laboratory host systems, Vero E6 cells and embryonating eggs. The effect of QR448(a) on IBV in chickens was also investigated. Administering QR448(a) to chickens at a 1:20 dilution by spray, 2h before challenge with IBV was determined to be the most effective treatment. Treatment decreased the severity of clinical signs and lesions in the birds, and lowered the amount of viral RNA in the trachea. Treatment with QR448(a) protected chickens for up to 4 days post-treatment from clinical signs of disease (but not from infection) and decreased transmission of IBV over a 14-day period. Anti-IBV activity of QR448(a) was greater prior to virus attachment and entry indicating that the effect is virucidal. In addition, QR448(a) had activity against both Massachusetts and Arkansas type IB viruses, indicating that it can be expected to be effective against IBV regardless of serotype. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the in vivo use of a virucidal mixture of compounds effective against the coronavirus IBV.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Titration of IBV Beaudette strain in Vero E6 cells following treatment with 10-fold serial dilutions of QR448(a) starting at 1 × 10−3 to 1 × 10−9 in cell culture maintenance medium and cell culture maintenance medium plus IBV alone (control) are presented. The 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) titers reflect the average of three replicates. No reduction in virus titer was observed for IBV treated with the diluent (data not shown).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Titration of IBV Beaudette strain in embryonating eggs following treatment with 10-fold serial dilutions of QR448(a) starting at 0 (no dilution) to 1 × 10−7 in PBS, and PBS plus IBV (control) are presented. The 50% embryo infectious dose (EID50) titers reflect the average of two replicates. No reduction in virus titer was observed for IBV treated with the diluent (data not shown).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Dose titration of QR448(a) in SPF chickens challenged with 1 × 104 EID50 of the pathogenic Mass41 strain of IBV per bird. Solid line = treatment 2 h before challenge and dashed line = treatment 2 h after challenge. Detection of viral RNA in tracheal swab samples by real-time RT-PCR is presented as the average cycle threshold value (higher numbers equal less virus) for each group (n = 10). Dilutions of QR448(a) represent no dilution (0), or doubling dilutions beginning with a 1:5 dilution. No treatment are non-treated and challenged birds.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Experiment 5. Percent of contact exposed chickens with IBV detected in the trachea by real-time RT-PCR. Treated birds (n = 25 at each sample time) received 1 ml each of a 1:20 dilution of QR448(a) in distilled water by spray. Not treated birds (n = 25 at each sample time) were sprayed with distilled water. *Statistically different p ≤ 0.03 (Fisher's exact test)

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