Seventy-five primary cemented total hip arthroplasties (THAs) were performed in 53 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. All patients were followed for an average of 7.4 years, unless their prosthetic hips failed before that time. Clinical evaluation was based on a 10-point maximum rating scale, and ratings for pain, walking, function, and activity improved from preoperative values to the most recent follow-up examination. Revision THA was performed for aseptic acetabular loosening in four hips, and femoral loosening in one hip. Sepsis occurred in another four hips. Complications of wound healing occurred in 14 hips. Roentgenographic evidence of loosening was seen in six acetabular components, in three femoral components, and in the femoral and acetabular component of one hip; none of these hips have as yet required revision THA. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis revealed a 93% survival probability at seven years, which fell to 77% at 12 years in these patients. A trend was that younger, larger patients had increased failure and component loosening rates. Cemented primary THA has been a satisfactory operation in the rheumatoid patient. The relatively high rate of wound healing problems and sepsis may be due to the systemic immune nature of rheumatoid arthritis; however, 25% of these prosthetic hips either failed or are at risk for future failure. Thus, improved techniques are still necessary to increase the long-term success of THA in the rheumatoid patient.