Antibiotic resistance and antioxidant defense were induced by ciprofloxacin in planktonic Proteus mirabilis and compared with the natural antibiotic resistance of biofilm. Resistant variants (1X and 1Y) were obtained from cultures of the sensitive wild type "wt" strain 1 in the presence of the antibiotic. Planktonic strain 1 exhibited oxidative stress with increases in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consumption of NO in the presence of ciprofloxacin, whereas 1X and 1Y suffered non-significant rises in ROS generation, but produced and consumed more NO than sensitive strain 1. The two resistant variants were more resistant to telluride than wt and showed increased levels of intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH). However, ciprofloxacin did not stimulate oxidative stress in biofilm. The production of ROS and NO with or without ciprofloxacin was less significant in biofilms than in an equivalent number of planktonic bacteria; sensitive and resistant strains did not present differences. On the other hand, SOD and GSH were more elevated in the biofilm than in planktonic bacteria. In summary, these results indicate that ciprofloxacin can induce resistance by the enhancement of antioxidant defense in planktonic bacteria, similar to the natural resistance occurring in biofilm. This feature may be added to the factors that regulate the susceptibility to this antibiotic.
Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.