Physiological and pathological roles for microRNAs in the immune system

Nat Rev Immunol. 2010 Feb;10(2):111-22. doi: 10.1038/nri2708.


Mammalian microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified as important regulators of gene expression, and they function by repressing specific target genes at the post-transcriptional level. Now, studies of miRNAs are resolving some unsolved issues in immunology. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs have unique expression profiles in cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems and have pivotal roles in the regulation of both cell development and function. Furthermore, when miRNAs are aberrantly expressed they can contribute to pathological conditions involving the immune system, such as cancer and autoimmunity; they have also been shown to be useful as diagnostic and prognostic indicators of disease type and severity. This Review discusses recent advances in our understanding of both the intended functions of miRNAs in managing immune cell biology and their pathological roles when their expression is dysregulated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity / immunology
  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Humans
  • Immune System*
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology
  • MicroRNAs / immunology*
  • Myeloid Cells / immunology
  • Neoplasms / immunology


  • MicroRNAs