Cancer cells that develop resistance to chemotherapeutic agents are a major clinical obstacle in the successful treatment of breast cancer. Acquired cancer chemoresistance is a multifactorial phenomenon, involving various mechanisms and processes. Recent studies suggest that chemoresistance may be linked to drug-induced dysregulation of microRNA function. Furthermore, mounting evidence indicates the existence of similarities between drug-resistant and metastatic cancer cells in terms of resistance to apoptosis and enhanced invasiveness. We studied the role of miRNA alterations in the acquisition of cisplatin-resistant phenotype in MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. We identified a total of 103 miRNAs that were overexpressed or underexpressed (46 upregulated and 57 downregulated) in MCF-7 cells resistant to cisplatin. These differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in the control of cell signaling, cell survival, DNA methylation and invasiveness. The most significantly dysregulated miRNAs were miR-146a, miR-10a, miR-221/222, miR-345, miR-200b and miR-200c. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-345 and miR-7 target the human multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. These results suggest that dysregulated miRNA expression may underlie the abnormal functioning of critical cellular processes associated with the cisplatin-resistant phenotype.