Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of the metabolic tumor volume measured on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging and other clinical factors in patients treated for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer (HNC) at a single institution.
Materials and methods: Between June 2005 and August 2008, 59 patients with HNC that underwent pretreatment FDG-PET studies received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Metabolically active tumor regions were delineated on the pretreatment PET scans by a fixed SUV of 2.5. We evaluated the relationship of the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) with the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
Results: The MTV and lymph node metastasis were predictive of the PFS and OS. The lymph node status did not correlate with the MTV. A higher MTV of 9.3 cm(3) was significantly associated with an increased risk of recurrence (2.19-fold, p = 0.006) and death (1.62-fold, p = 0.051). Separation of patients with tumor volumes <or= 9.3 cm(3) and no lymph node disease vs. any other combination was strongly predictive of the PFS and the OS.
Conclusions: MTV and lymph node status were prognostic values associated with survival. Quantitative measurement of tumor volume separates patients with a good prognosis from those with a poorer prognosis. A subset of patients with relatively small tumors and no lymph node involvement did very well.