Evolutionary conservation of heavy chain protein transfer between glycosaminoglycans

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Apr;1804(4):1011-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.01.013. Epub 2010 Jan 25.


The bikunin proteins are composed of heavy chains (HCs) covalently linked to a chondroitin sulfate chain originating from Ser-10 of bikunin. Tumor necrosis factor stimulated gene-6 protein (TSG-6)/heavy chain 2 (HC2) cleaves this unique cross-link and transfers the HCs to hyaluronan and other glycosaminoglycans via a covalent HC*TSG-6 intermediate. In the present study, we have investigated if this reaction is evolutionary conserved based on the hypothesis that it is of fundamental importance. The results revealed that plasma/serum samples from mammal, bird, and reptile were able to form TSG-6 complexes suggesting the presence of proteins with the same function as the human bikunin proteins. To substantiate this, the complex forming protein from Gallus gallus (Gg) plasma was purified and identified as a Gg homolog of human HC2*bikunin. In addition, Gg pre-alpha-inhibitor and smaller amount of high molecular weight forms composed of bikunin and two HCs were purified. Like the human bikunin proteins, the purified Gg proteins were all stabilized by a protein-glycosaminoglycan-protein cross-link, i.e. the HCs were covalently attached to a chondroitin sulfate originating from bikunin. Furthermore, the complex formed between Gg HC2*bikunin and human TSG-6 appeared to be identical to that of the human proteins. Akin to human, Gg HC2 was further transferred to hyaluronan when present, and when incubated in vitro, Gg pre-alpha-inhibitor and TSG-6, failed to form the intermediate covalent complex, essential for HC transfer. Significantly, Gg HC2, analogous to human HC2, promoted complex formation between human HC3 and human TSG-6, substantiating the evolutionary conservation of these interactions. The present study demonstrates that the unique interactions between bikunin proteins, glycosaminoglycans, and TSG-6 are evolutionary conserved, emphasizing the physiological importance of the TSG-6/HC2-mediated HC-transfer reaction. In addition, the data show that the evolution of HC transfer is likely to predate the role of HC.HA complexes in female fertility and thus has evolved in the context of inflammation rather than fertility.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alpha-Globulins / chemistry
  • Alpha-Globulins / genetics
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Birds
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / chemistry
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / genetics
  • Chickens
  • Chondroitin Sulfates / chemistry
  • Conserved Sequence
  • DNA Primers / genetics
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Female
  • Glycoproteins / chemistry*
  • Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Glycosaminoglycans / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Hyaluronic Acid / chemistry
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Mammals
  • Multiprotein Complexes / chemistry
  • Reptiles


  • Alpha-Globulins
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • DNA Primers
  • Glycoproteins
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • TNFAIP6 protein, human
  • alpha-1-microglobulin
  • Hyaluronic Acid
  • Chondroitin Sulfates