Determination of bisphenol A in U.S. infant formulas: updated methods and concentrations

J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Feb 24;58(4):2307-13. doi: 10.1021/jf903959u.


An updated survey of U.S. infant formula was conducted to determine the concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA). The purpose was to accurately assess BPA concentrations across the infant formula market, accounting for lot variability, and determine if geographic location or can age influences BPA concentrations. A method was developed to measure BPA in formula utilizing isotope dilution, solid-phase extraction, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The method was tested and found to be reproducible (10% relative standard deviation), reliable (47 +/- 1% recovery), and sensitive (0.15 ng g(-1) method detection limit). Over 160 analyses were conducted using 104 formula containers representing 36 products. Samples from U.S. east and west coast markets demonstrated no significant difference, and concentrations in older cans were not higher. BPA concentrations in liquid formula (0.48-11 ng g(-1)) were consistent with previous studies, and BPA was detected in only 1 of 14 powder formula products analyzed.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Canada
  • Cattle
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods
  • Food, Fortified / analysis
  • Food, Preserved / analysis
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Formula / chemistry*
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Milk / chemistry
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Soy Milk / chemistry
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared / methods
  • United States


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A