Tacrolimus (Tac) plus methotrexate (MTX) is a standard regimen for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is sometimes used instead of MTX to minimize toxicity, despite the lack of controlled studies demonstrating efficacy. We conducted a single-center, randomized phase II trial comparing Tac + MMF to Tac + MTX. Intent-to-treat analyses included 42 patients randomized to Tac + MMF and 47 to Tac + MTX. Patient characteristics were not different between the study arms. Patients in the Tac + MMF arm were less likely to experience severe mucositis, require narcotic analgesia and parenteral nutrition, and had earlier hospital discharge. The Tac + MMF arm had the same time to neutrophil recovery, but earlier platelet recovery. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) at 100 days was similar (P = .8), but grade III-IV aGVHD was higher in the Tac + MMF arm (19% versus 4%; P = .03); this was predominantly seen in unrelated donor transplants (26% versus 4%; P = .04), and less in related donor transplants (11% versus 4%; P = n.s.). Moderate or severe chronic GVHD was similar (P = .71). There were no significant differences between the arms in relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or overall and relapse-free survivals. MMF was associated with less early toxicity than MTX but was not as effective in preventing severe aGVHD, especially in unrelated donor transplants.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00360685.