The aim of the present study was to compare clinical effects of oral midazolam and clonidine premedication in children. In a prospective randomized double blind trial, 45 children between 2-8 years old received either oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg (group M) or clonidine at 2 microg/kg (group C 2) or 4 microg/kg (group C4). The level of sedation, quality of parental separation, mask acceptance and thermodynamics were recorded. Postoperative analgesia, and perioperative side effects were assessed. In comparison to group M, the scores of sedation, parental separation and mask acceptance were significantly higher in group C2 and group C4 (p < 0.05). Also the level of sedation was significantly better in group C 4 than in group C 2 (p < 0.05). However, the rate of postoperative analgesia decreased significantly in group C 2 and C 4 compared to group M. The incidence of shivering was significantly increased in group M compared to group C 2 and C 4 . Oral clonidine premedication can therefore provide better preoperative sedation and postoperative analgesia with few adverse effects.