Approximately 10 million men and women in the United States are unable to have children due to medical problems directly affecting their fertility. Of those couples seeking medical intervention, 30% to 50% of the infertility problems are diagnosed as male problems. Andrology, the study of male fertility, has grown in response to the need for laboratory services and research facilities. The repertoire of diagnostic tests currently available to the clinician includes enhanced semen analysis, antisperm antibody assay, sperm penetration assay and hemizona assay. Some of the laboratory techniques designed for improvement in semen data and/or storage of the specimen are sperm washing, sperm "rise" and cryopreservation. The andrology laboratory is a support service to the family practitioner, the urologist and the reproduction specialist. With state-of-the-art technology, physicians are better able to address infertility, minimize patient distress and provide patients with reasonable options.