Deletion of the Parkin co-regulated gene causes defects in ependymal ciliary motility and hydrocephalus in the quakingviable mutant mouse

Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1593-602. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddq031. Epub 2010 Jan 27.


The quakingviable mouse (qkv) is a spontaneous recessive mouse mutant with a deletion of approximately 1.1 Mb in the proximal region of chromosome 17. The deletion affects the expression of three genes; quaking (Qk), Parkin-coregulated gene (Pacrg) and parkin (Park2). The resulting phenotype, which includes dysmyelination of the central nervous system and male sterility, is due to reduced expression of Qk and a complete lack of Pacrg expression, respectively. Pacrg is required for correct development of the spermatozoan flagella, a specialized type of motile cilia. In vertebrates, motile cilia are required for multiple functions related to cellular movement or movement of media over a stationary cell surface. To investigate the potential role of PACRG in motile cilia we analysed qkv mutant mice for evidence of cilial dysfunction. Histological and magnetic resonance imaging analyses demonstrated that qkv mutant mice were affected by acquired, communicating hydrocephalus (HC). Structural analysis of ependymal cilia demonstrated that the 9 + 2 arrangement of axonemal microtubules was intact and that both the density of ciliated cells and cilia length was similar to wild-type littermates. Cilia function studies showed a reduction in ependymal cilial beat frequency and cilial mediated flow in qkv mutant mice compared with wild-type littermate controls. Moreover, transgenic expression of Pacrg was necessary and sufficient to correct this deficit and rescue the HC phenotype in the qkv mutant. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that Pacrg is required for motile cilia function and may be involved in the pathogenesis of human ciliopathies, such as HC, asthenospermia and primary ciliary dyskinesia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cilia / genetics
  • Cilia / physiology*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Ependyma / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Gene Deletion*
  • Humans
  • Hydrocephalus / genetics*
  • Hydrocephalus / metabolism
  • Hydrocephalus / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Quaking
  • Microfilament Proteins
  • Molecular Chaperones
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Proteins / metabolism


  • Microfilament Proteins
  • Molecular Chaperones
  • Pacrg protein, mouse
  • Proteins