In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a family of six genes encodes acyl-coenzyme A-binding proteins (ACBPs). A member of this family, ACBP1, contains an amino-terminal transmembrane domain that targets it to the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. To investigate ACBP1 function, ACBP1-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants were characterized using lipid analysis. ACBP1 overexpressors showed reduction in several species of diunsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC), prompting us to investigate if they were altered in response to freezing stress. ACBP1 overexpressors demonstrated increased freezing sensitivity accompanied by a decrease in PC and an increase in phosphatidic acid (PA), while acbp1 mutant plants showed enhanced freezing tolerance associated with PC accumulation and PA reduction. We also showed binding of a recombinant eukaryotic ACBP (ACBP1) to PA, indicative of the possibility of enhanced PA interaction in ACBP1 overexpressors. Since phospholipase Dalpha1 (PLDalpha1) is a major enzyme promoting the hydrolysis of PC to PA, PLDalpha1 expression was examined and was observed to be higher in ACBP1 overexpressors than in acbp1 mutant plants. In contrast, the expression of PLDdelta, which plays a positive role in freezing tolerance, declined in the ACBP1 overexpressors but increased in acbp1 mutant plants. Given that ACBP1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane, it may regulate the expression of PLDalpha1 and PLDdelta by maintaining a membrane-associated PA pool through its ability to bind PA. Moreover, both genotypes showed no alterations in proline and soluble sugar content or in cold-regulated (COR6.6 and COR47) gene expression, suggesting that the ACBP1-mediated response is PLD associated and is independent of osmolyte accumulation.