Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are autoimmune demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Interferon-gamma-producing Th1 and interleukin-17-producing Th17 CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells mediate disease pathogenesis in EAE and likely in MS as well. However, the relative contribution of each Th subset to autoimmune processes in the CNS remains unclear. Emerging data suggest that both Th1 and Th17 cells contribute to CNS autoimmunity, albeit through different mechanisms. A better understanding of the roles that Th1 and Th17 cells play in autoimmune inflammation will be helpful in developing new therapeutic approaches. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the roles of Th1 and Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of EAE.