Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze deimination, converting arginyl to citrullyl residues. Only three PAD isotypes are detected in the epidermis where they play a crucial role, targeting filaggrin, a key actor for the tissue hydration and barrier functions. Their expression and activation depends on the keratinocyte differentiation state. To investigate this regulation, we used primary keratinocytes induced to differentiate either by increasing cell-density or by treatment with vitamin D. High cell-density increased PAD1 and 3, but not PAD2, at the mRNA and protein levels, and up-regulated protein deimination. By contrast, vitamin D increased PAD1-3 mRNA amounts, with distinct kinetics, but neither the proteins nor the deimination rate. Furthermore, auto-deimination was shown to decrease PAD activity, increasing the distances between the four major amino acids of the active site. In summary, deimination can be regulated at multiple levels: transcription of the PADI genes, translation of the corresponding mRNAs, and auto-deimination of PADs.