Esophagectomy (EG) and endoscopic therapy (ET) can eradicate Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia. Their relative effect on quality of life is unknown. The 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) questionnaires were sent to all patients who underwent either EG or ET at our institution over the last 9 years. Groups were stratified by age and American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) class. Surveys were sent to 77 patients and completed by 14 EG (50%) and by 28 ET patients (57%). The average time between treatment and survey was 4 years in the ET group and 5 years in the EG group. There were no significant differences in SF-36 scores between EG and ET patients except for superior physical functioning among EG patients 65 and older QOL scores among EG and ET groups were not significantly different than sex age-matched controls. GIQLI scores were similar between ET and EG patients of all ages (P= 0.60). GIQLI scores were higher among younger ET patients than young EG patients (P= 0.049). GIQLI scores also tended to be higher among ASA 1 and 2 ET patients than ASA 1 and 2 EG patients, but this did not reach statistical significance (P= 0.09). EG and ET for early Barrett's neoplasia appear to have similar impact on QOL 1 year or more after treatment compared with age-matched controls. Negative QOL impact appears to be greater for younger patients undergoing EG than for ET.