Neuroblastoma, a neoplasm of the sympathetic nervous system, is the second most common extracranial malignant tumor of childhood and the most common solid tumor of infancy. Neuroblastoma is a heterogeneous malignancy with prognosis ranging from near uniform survival to high risk for fatal demise. Neuroblastoma serves as a paradigm for the prognostic utility of biologic and clinical data and the potential to tailor therapy for patient cohorts at low, intermediate, and high risk for recurrence. This article summarizes our understanding of neuroblastoma biology and prognostic features and discusses their impact on current and proposed risk stratification schemas, risk-based therapeutic approaches, and the development of novel therapies for patients at high risk for failure.
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