Yield of HIV-associated tuberculosis during intensified case finding in resource-limited settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Feb;10(2):93-102. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70326-3.


Intensified case finding is the regular screening for evidence of tuberculosis in people infected with HIV, at high risk of HIV, or living in congregate settings. We systematically reviewed studies of intensified case finding published between January, 1994, and April, 2009. In 78 eligible studies, the number of people with tuberculosis detected during intensified case finding varied substantially between countries and target groups of patients. Median prevalence of newly diagnosed tuberculosis was 0.7% in population-based surveys, 2.2% in contact-tracing studies, 2.3% in mines, 2.3% in programmes preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, 2.5% in prisons, 8.2% in medical and antiretroviral treatment clinics, and 8.5% in voluntary counselling and testing services. Metaregression analysis of studies that included only people with HIV showed that for each increment in national prevalence of tuberculosis of 100 cases per 100 000 population, intensified case finding identified an additional one case per 100 screened individuals (p=0.03). Microbiological sputum examination of all individuals without prior selection by symptom screening yielded an additional four cases per 100 individuals screened (p=0.05). Data on the use of serial screening, treatment outcomes in actively identified cases of tuberculosis, and cost-effectiveness, however, were lacking. Concerted action is needed to develop intensified case finding as an important method for control of tuberculosis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Female
  • Geography
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / transmission
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Mother-Child Relations
  • Prevalence
  • Prisoners / statistics & numerical data
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology*
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / mortality