The incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are increasing in the US population as a whole, but much more rapidly among ethnic minorities. Recent studies have shown that metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for the development of incident CKD in African Americans and American Indians distinct from its impact on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in ethnic minorities often is multifactorial. We review the myriad facets of the impact of the metabolic syndrome on the pathophysiology of CKD in minorities. In addition to classic biochemical and physiologic factors, increasing attention is being drawn to the major role of novel factors such as adiponectin and socioeconomic and cultural factors in the development of obesity and insulin resistance; an understudied area that may modulate clinically relevant consequences of biochemical and pathophysiologic aberrations. We present an integrated pathophysiologic viewpoint that incorporates insights from basic science, socioeconomic inquiry, and clinical studies into a framework for clinical practice and investigation.
Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.