Effect of menses on clearance of Y-chromosome in vaginal fluid: implications for a biomarker of recent sexual activity

Sex Transm Dis. 2010 Jan;37(1):1-4. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181b5f15d.


Self-reported sexual behaviors are subject to bias. We previously developed a polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Y-chromosome sequences in vaginal fluid as a potential biomarker of recent sexual activity. In this study, we found menses results in lower Y-chromosome concentrations but with similar decay patterns as non-menstrual samples.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chromosomes, Human, Y / physiology*
  • Coitus*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menstruation / physiology*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / prevention & control
  • Vagina / physiology*
  • Vaginal Smears


  • Biomarkers