A common problem in the management of hemodialysis patients is central venous occlusive disease. There has been extensive literature on the treatment of this important and prevalent problem. Treatment options to date include percutaneous balloon angioplasty, bare metal stents and surgical bypass. Unfortunately, all the available treatment options have poor long-term patency, requiring repetitive intervention. More recently, covered stents have been mentioned in the literature for the treatment of central venous stenosis and obstruction. There is very little data to date on this technology, and further randomized controlled trials will be needed to compare the efficacy of percutaneous balloon angioplasty, bare metal stents and covered stents. It appears prevention of this difficult problem is paramount, by limiting venous access or intervention of the central venous system.