Effect of cardiometabolic risk factors on hypertension management: a cross-sectional study among 28 physician practices in the United States

Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010 Feb 1:9:7. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-9-7.


Objective: This cross-sectional study sought to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor clusters (CMRFCs) and their effect on BP control among hypertensive patients from 28 US physician practices.

Methods: Each participating practice identified a random sample of 150-300 adults aged >or= 18 years diagnosed with hypertension. The primary outcome variable was BP control (BP < 140/90 mmHg for non-diabetic and <130/80 mmHg for diabetic patients). CMRFCs included hypertension in addition to obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes.

Results: Overall, 6,527 hypertensive patients were identified for study inclusion. More than half (54.3%) were female, and mean age was 64.7 years. Almost half (48.7%) were obese (BMI >or= 30 kg/m2). About 1 in every 4 patients (25.3%) had diabetes, and 60.7% had dyslipidemia. Mean blood pressure was 132.5/77.9 mmHg, and 55.0% of all patients had controlled BP; 62.4% of non-diabetic patients, and 33.3% of diabetic hypertensive patients, had BP controlled to recommended levels. Most (81.7%) hypertensive patients had >or= 1 cardiometabolic risk factor, and 12.2% had all 3 risk factors. As compared to hypertensive patients without additional risk factors, adjusted odds ratios for BP control were significantly lower for all combinations of CMRFCs (ORs 0.15-0.83, all p < 0.04), with the exception of patients who had only dyslipidemia in addition to hypertension (OR = 1.09, p = NS). Prescriber adherence to recommended hypertension treatment guidelines for patients with diabetes, heart failure, or prior myocardial infarction was high. Although patients with risk factors were prescribed more antihypertensive medications than those without, hypertensive patients with all 3 risk factors were prescribed a mean of 2.4 antihypertensive medications compared to 1.7 for those with no risk factors; odds of BP control in these patients, however, was 0.23 [95% CI 0.19-0.29] that of patients with no other CMRFCs.

Conclusions: Across 28 US practices, only 18% of hypertensive patients did not have any additional cardiometabolic risk factors. The high prevalence of CMRFCs presents a challenge to effective hypertension management.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Complications / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / physiopathology*
  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • Heart Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Metabolic Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Physicians*
  • Prevalence
  • Racial Groups
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult