Stimulants and doping in sport

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2010 Mar;39(1):89-105, ix. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2009.10.011.


Stimulants have been frequently detected in doping control samples and represent a structurally diverse class of compounds. Comprehensive sports drug-testing procedures have been developed using gas or liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometric detection, and they have revealed various adverse analytical findings, as demonstrated with 2 examples, 4-methylhexan-2-amine and methoxyphenamine. Moreover, the necessity of controlling the use or misuse of stimulating agents is outlined by means of pseudoephedrine, a compound that was prohibited in sports until the end of 2003. Since the ban was lifted, monitoring programs proved a significant increase in pseudoephedrine applications as determined from urine samples collected in competition. As a consequence, a reimplementation of this drug in future doping controls was decided.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amphetamines / administration & dosage
  • Amphetamines / analysis
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants* / administration & dosage
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants* / analysis
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants* / classification
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Doping in Sports* / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Doping in Sports* / prevention & control
  • Ephedrine / administration & dosage
  • Ephedrine / analysis
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Humans
  • Pseudoephedrine / administration & dosage
  • Pseudoephedrine / analysis


  • Amphetamines
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Ephedrine