Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that positively regulates the basal and inducible expression of a large battery of cytoprotective genes. These gene products include proteins that catalyze reduction reactions (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, Nqo1), conjugation reactions (glutathione-S-transferases, Gsts and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, Ugts), as well as the efflux of potentially toxic xenobiotics and xenobiotic conjugates (multidrug resistance-associated proteins, Mrps). The significance of Nrf2 in the liver has been established, as livers of Nrf2-null mice are more susceptible to various oxidative/electrophilic stress-induced pathologies than wild-type mice. In contrast, both pharmacological and genetic models of hepatic Nrf2 activation are protective against oxidative/electrophilic stress. Furthermore, because certain Nrf2-target genes in the liver could affect the distribution, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotics, the effects of Nrf2 on the kinetics of drugs and other xenobiotics should also be considered, with a special emphasis on metabolism and excretion. Therefore, this review highlights the research that has contributed to the understanding of the importance of Nrf2 in toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics, especially that which pertains to the liver.
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