Peroxisomes are organelles bounded by a single membrane that can be found in all major groups of eukaryotes. A single evolutionary origin of this cellular compartment is supported by the presence, in diverse organisms, of a common set of proteins implicated in peroxisome biogenesis and maintenance. Their enzymatic content, however, can vary substantially across species, indicating a high level of evolutionary plasticity. Proteomic analyses have greatly expanded our knowledge on peroxisomes in some model organisms, including plants, mammals and yeasts. However, we still have a limited knowledge about the distribution and functionalities of peroxisomes in the vast majority of groups of microbial eukaryotes. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of peroxisome diversity and evolution, with a special emphasis on peroxisomes in microbial eukaryotes.