Prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in Indonesia (a part of basic health research/Riskesdas)

Acta Med Indones. 2009 Oct;41(4):169-74.


Aim: To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in 15 year old and over in urban Indonesia and their association with risk factors such as age, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension.

Methods: A national sample involving 24,417 participants living in urban Indonesia aged > 15 years were examined for 2 hours of plasma glucose concentrations in a cross sectional survey using the 75-g oral glucose. Diagnostic criteria of the World Health Organization 1999 and American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2003 were used to determine the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance. Data on age, smoking, physical activity were obtained from the personal interview, and obesity included body mass index and waist circumference and blood pressure were measured.

Results: The prevalences of diabetes in urban Indonesia was 5.7%, consisting of diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DDM) 1.5%, undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDDM) 4.2% and IGT 10.2%. The prevalence of DM was 6.4% in women and 4.9% in men. In the youngest group (15-24 years) 5.3% had IGT. Prevalence increases with age with a sharp rise from middle age (35-54 years). Determinant factors for IGT and diabetes were age, smoking, obesity, central obesity and hypertension.

Conclusion: these results indicate that diabetes has become a major public health problem in Indonesia and needs national strategies to screen, prevent and treat the disease.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Indonesia / epidemiology
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Physical Fitness
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Urban Population