Previously, we found that co-expression of CD25 and TNFR2 identified the most suppressive subset of mouse Treg. In this study, we report that human peripheral blood (PB) FOXP3(+) cells present in CD25(high), CD25(low) and even CD25(-) subsets of CD4(+) cells expressed high levels of TNFR2. Consequently, TNFR2-expressing CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg included all of the FOXP3(+) cells present in the CD4(+)CD25(high) subset as well as a substantial proportion of the FOXP3(+) cells present in the CD4(+)CD25(low) subset. Flow cytometric analysis of PB identified five-fold more Treg, determined by FOXP3 expression, in the CD4(+)CD25(+)TNFR2(+) subset than in the CD4(+)CD25(high) subset. In addition, similar levels of FOXP3(+) cells were identified in both the CD4(+)CD25(+)TNFR2(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) subsets. Furthermore, the CD4(+)CD25(+)TNFR2(+) subset expressed high levels of CTLA-4, CD45RO, CCR4 and low levels of CD45RA and CD127, a phenotype characteristic of Treg. Upon TCR stimulation, human PB CD4(+)CD25(+)TNFR2(+) cells were anergic and markedly inhibited the proliferation and cytokine production of co-cultured T-responder cells. In contrast, CD4(+)CD25(+)TNFR2(-) and CD4(+)CD25(-)TNFR2(+) T cells did not show inhibitory activity. As some non-Treg express TNFR2, the combination of CD25 and TNFR2 must be used to identify a larger population of human Treg, a population that may prove to be of diagnostic and therapeutic benefit in cancer and autoimmune diseases.