Intracerebroventricular injection of beta-amyloid(25-35) (Abeta(25-35)) in mice leads to cognitive deficits with the dysfunction of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR) within 1-2 weeks in a dose-dependent manner. The present study focused on the effect of DMXB, a selective alpha7nAChR agonist, on Abeta(25-35) (3 nmol)-impaired spatial memory and alpha7nAChR function. We found that the treatment with DMXB on days 1-10 after Abeta(25-35) injection dose-dependently prevented Abeta(25-35)-induced impairment of acquisition performance and probe trail test in Morris water maze. Importantly, the treatment with DMXB (1 mg/kg) perfectly prevented Abeta(25-35)-induced depression of alpha7nAChR response, which was associated with improving the probability of presynaptic glutamate release and the induction of high-frequency stimulation (HFS)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal Schaffer collaterale-CA1 synapse. Furthermore, although either the basal level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) or its phosphorylation in the hippocampus had no difference between control and Abeta(25-35) mice, the Abeta(25-35) injection significantly attenuated HFS-triggered increase in ERK2 phosphorylation. The treatment with DMXB also rescued the ERK2 phosphorylation triggered by HFS in Abeta(25-35) mice that is required for LTP induction. This study firstly provides in vivo evidence that the anti-amnesic effect of DMXB is likely due to preventing the Abeta(25-35)-induced dysfunction of alpha7nAChR.