Trends in adult tobacco use from two South African Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1998 and 2003

S Afr Med J. 2009 Oct;99(10):744-9.


Introduction: Since peaking in the early 1990s in South Africa, tobacco use has declined significantly. The reduction has been attributed to the government's comprehensive tobacco control policies that were introduced at the time.

Objective: To assess the pattern of tobacco use in the South African Demographic and Health Surveys of 1998 and 2003.

Methods: Multi-stage sampling was used to select approximately 11 000 households in cross-sectional national surveys. Face-to-face interviews, conducted with 13 826 adults (41% men) aged > or = 15 years in 1998, and 8 115 (42% men) in 2003, included questions on tobacco use according to the WHO STEP-wise surveillance programme. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent effects of selected characteristics on smoking prevalence.

Results: Daily or occasional smoking prevalence among women remained unchanged at 10 - 11%; it decreased among men from 42% (1998) to 35% (2003). The decline for men was significant among the poorest and those aged 25 - 44 years. Strong age patterns were observed, peaking at 35 - 44 years, which was reduced among men in 2003. Higher income and education were associated with low prevalence of smoking, while living in urban areas was associated with higher rates. Black men and women smoked significantly less than other population groups.

Conclusion: Despite decreased smoking rates in some subgroups, a lapse exists in the efforts to reduce tobacco use, as smoking rates have remained unchanged among women, and also among young adults aged 15 - 24 years.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / trends*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • South Africa / epidemiology
  • Young Adult