Rising rates of resistance to antimicrobial drugs among Enterobacteriaceae limit the choice of reliably active forms of these drugs. We evaluated the evidence on fosfomycin as a treatment option for infections caused by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae with advanced resistance to antimicrobial drugs, including producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). We systematically reviewed studies evaluating the antimicrobial activity, or the clinical effectiveness of fosfomycin. 17 antimicrobial-susceptibility studies were found and included in our Review, accounting for 5057 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae with advanced resistance to antimicrobial drugs (4448 were producers of ESBL); 11 of the 17 studies reported that at least 90% of the isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin. Using a provisional minimum inhibitory concentration susceptibility breakpoint of 64 mg/L or less, 1604 (96.8%) of 1657 Escherichia coli isolates producing ESBL were susceptible to fosfomycin. Similarly, 608 (81.3%) of 748 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing ESBL were susceptible to fosfomycin. In two clinical studies, oral treatment with fosfomycin-trometamol was clinically effective against complicated or uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections caused by ESBL-producing E coli in, cumulatively, 75 (93.8%) of the 80 patients evaluated. Initial clinical data support the use of fosfomycin for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by these pathogens, although further research is needed.
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