An inactivated Vero cell-grown Japanese encephalitis vaccine formulated with Advax, a novel inulin-based adjuvant, induces protective neutralizing antibody against homologous and heterologous flaviviruses

J Gen Virol. 2010 Jun;91(Pt 6):1407-17. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.019190-0. Epub 2010 Feb 3.


Advax is a polysaccharide-based adjuvant that potently stimulates vaccine immunogenicity without the increased reactogenicity seen with other adjuvants. This study investigated the immunogenicity of a novel Advax-adjuvanted Vero cell culture candidate vaccine against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in mice and horses. The results showed that, in mice, a two-immunization, low-dose (50 ng JEV antigen) regimen with adjuvanted vaccine produced solid neutralizing immunity comparable to that elicited with live ChimeriVax-JE immunization and superior to that elicited with tenfold higher doses of a traditional non-adjuvanted JEV vaccine (JE-VAX; Biken Institute) or a newly approved alum-adjuvanted vaccine (Jespect; Novartis). Mice vaccinated with the Advax-adjuvanted, but not the unadjuvanted vaccine, were protected against live JEV challenge. Equine immunizations against JEV with Advax-formulated vaccine similarly showed enhanced vaccine immunogenicity, confirming that the adjuvant effects of Advax are not restricted to rodent models. Advax-adjuvanted JEV vaccine elicited a balanced T-helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 immune response against JEV with protective levels of cross-neutralizing antibody against other viruses belonging to the JEV serocomplex, including Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV). The adjuvanted JEV vaccine was well tolerated with minimal reactogenicity and no systemic toxicity in immunized animals. The cessation of manufacture of traditional mouse brain-derived unadjuvanted JEV vaccine in Japan has resulted in a JEV vaccine shortage internationally. There is also an ongoing lack of human vaccines against other JEV serocomplex flaviviruses, such as MVEV, making this adjuvanted, cell culture-grown JEV vaccine a promising candidate to address both needs with one vaccine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage*
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / blood*
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood*
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Cross Reactions
  • Encephalitis, Japanese / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Flavivirus / immunology*
  • Horses
  • Inulin / administration & dosage
  • Inulin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines / immunology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Survival Analysis
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Th2 Cells / immunology
  • Vaccination / methods
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology
  • Vero Cells


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • delta inulin
  • Inulin