Two hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies reactive with natural killer cells were selected after fusion of 129 anti-C57BL/6 immune spleen cells with P3X63-Ag8.653 myeloma cells. Treatment of normal or stimulated cells with the 4LO3311 or the 4LO439 mAb and rabbit complement inhibited natural killer and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicities, whereas cell lysis mediated by natural cytotoxic cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, or activated macrophages was unaffected. Lymphokine-activated killer activity was reduced after complement-mediated treatment of interleukin-2-stimulated spleen cells with the 4LO3311 mAb but not after treatment with the 4LO439 mAb. Similar treatment of spleen cells with either mAb had no effect on the mitogen-induced proliferation of T and B lymphocytes and did not alter the frequency of antibody plaque-forming cells in immune spleen cell suspensions. The 4LO3311 and 4LO439 mAbs thus appear to be specific for NK cells and their progeny. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that 4LO3311+ and 4LO439+ cells are phenotypically identical to NK-1.1+ cells. The epitope recognized by the 4LO3311 mAb has the same strain distribution as the NK-2.1 alloantigen previously detected with NZB anti-BALB/c antiserum, whereas the 4LO439 mAb appears to identify a new NK cell marker exclusively expressed in mice of C57BL lineage. The relationship of the molecules detected with either the 4LO3311 or the 4LO439 mAb to polymorphic antigens of the Ly series is discussed.