Diffusely infiltrating cerebral gliomas frequently carry point mutations in codon 132 of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene or in codon 172 of the IDH2 gene, which are both clinically important as diagnostic and prognostic markers. Here, we report on a method that allows for the rapid detection of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations based on pyrosequencing. The method is applicable to routinely processed tissue specimens and provides quantitative mutation data within less than one working day. Due to its high sensitivity, the technique may also be used for the diagnostic assessment of IDH1 or IDH2 mutation in tissue samples with low tumor cell content, such as the infiltration zone of diffuse gliomas. Using pyrosequencing and/or conventional cycle sequencing of IDH1 and IDH2 in 262 gliomas, we confirm frequent mutations in diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas, corroborate a prognostic role for IDH1 mutation in primary glioblastomas and show that pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas generally lack mutations in these genes.