Background and purpose: Although GPR55 is potently activated by the endogenous lysophospholipid, L-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), it is also thought to be sensitive to a number of cannabinoid ligands, including the prototypic CB1 receptor antagonists AM251 and SR141716A (Rimonabant). In this study we have used a range of functional assays to compare the pharmacological activity of selected cannabinoid ligands, AM251, AM281 and SR141716A with LPI in a HEK293 cell line engineered to stably express recombinant, human GPR55.
Experimental approach: We evaluated Ca(2+) signalling, stimulation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mitogen activated kinase MAP-kinases, induction of transcriptional regulators that are downstream of GPR55, including nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), as well as receptor endocytosis. In addition, we assessed the suitability of a novel, label-free assay for GPR55 ligands that involves optical measurement of dynamic mass redistribution following receptor activation.
Key results: GPR55 linked to a range of downstream signalling events and that the activity of GPR55 ligands was influenced by the functional assay employed, with differences in potency and efficacy observed.
Conclusions and implications: Our data help to resolve some of the issues surrounding the pharmacology of cannabinoid ligands at GPR55 and highlight some differences in effector coupling associated with distinct GPR55 ligands.