Purpose: Increasing evidence has suggested that angiogenesis inhibition might potentiate the effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). In addition, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition might be of therapeutic benefit, because the epidermal growth factor receptor is upregulated in GBM and contributes to radiation resistance. We conducted a Phase I study of vandetanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor, in patients with newly diagnosed GBM combined with RT and temozolomide (TMZ).
Methods and materials: A total of 13 GBM patients were treated with vandetanib, radiotherapy, and concurrent and adjuvant TMZ, using a standard "3 + 3" dose escalation. The maximal tolerated dose was defined as the dose with <1 of 6 dose-limiting toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The eligible patients were adults with newly diagnosed GBM, Karnofsky performance status of >or=60, normal organ function, who were not taking enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs.
Results: Of the 13 patients, 6 were treated with vandetanib at a dose of 200mg daily. Of the 6 patients, 3 developed dose-limiting toxicities within the first 12 weeks, including gastrointestinal hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia in 1 patient, neutropenia in 1 patient, and diverticulitis with gastrointestinal perforation in 1 patient. The other 7 patients were treated with 100 mg daily, with no dose-limiting toxicities observed, establishing this dose as the maximal tolerated dose combined with TMZ and RT.
Conclusion: Vandetanib can be safely combined with RT and TMZ in GBM patients. A Phase II study in which patients are randomized to vandetanib 100 mg daily with RT and TMZ or RT and TMZ alone is underway.
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